Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) use high energy electrons, incident on an ultra thin sample allow for image resolutions that are on the order of 12- Angstroms. TEM can characterize crystallographic phase, crystallographic orientation, produce elemental maps (using EDS), and images that highlight elemental contrast (dark field mode), from nm sized areas that can be precisely located.
SEM-EBSD technique is applied for:
- Crystal orientation analysis.
- Texture analysis, including pole figure plots, inverse pole figure plots, orientation color coded maps, Euler space, Rodriguez space
- Grain size distribution and analysis
- Misorientation angle distribution and analysis.
- Phase ID and multi-phase differentiation and mapping of all crystal phases
- Advanced texture analysis (ODF, MDF) C- coefficients
- Grain boundary analysis, Grain boundary mapping
This data is plotted as intensity vs. angle to give a series of peaks (diffraction pattern). Each chemical compound or phase gives a different diffraction pattern. A mixture of compounds gives a pattern that is made up of the patterns of all the individual compounds. The compounds present in a mixture are then identified by comparing the obtained diffraction pattern to a large database of patterns.
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) use a spectroscopic technique which is commonly applied for solids in which X-rays are used to excite a sample and generate secondary X-rays. XRF provides determination of trace elements in solids (quantitative elemental analysis). XRF can be used for wide range of elements to determine the detection limits at sub ppm level. Typical uses include the analysis of metals, plastic, rubber, pharmaceutical products, fertizers, minerals, oils, ore, cements, glass and ceramics etc.